Construction and Engineering

Origin: CSA
Close date: Nov 7, 2018
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1  Scope

1.1  General

This Standard provides criteria, in accordance with the National Building Code of Canada for the structural design and evaluation of structures or structural elements made from wood or wood products, including:

graded lumber,

glued-laminated timber,

cross-laminated timber (CLT),

unsanded plywood,

oriented strand board (OSB),

composite building components,

shearwalls and diaphragms,

timber piling,

pole-type construction,

prefabricated wood I-joists,

structural composite lumber products,

permanent wood foundations,

plank decking,

nail laminated decking, and 

structural connections.

This Standard employs the limit states design method.

1.2  Terminology

In CSA Standards, “shall” is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; “should” is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; “may” is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.

Origin: CSA
Close date: Nov 7, 2018
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Scope

1.1
General

This Standard applies to structural antennas, towers, antenna-supporting structures, and roof- and wall-mounted structures, including their components, such as guys and foundations. It covers the structural design, fabrication, and erection of new structures and the modification of existing structures.

1.2
Exclusions

This Standard is not intended to apply to

a) attachment antennas and arrays or assemblies of such antennas; or
b) towers that support attachment antennas, extending less than 15 m above grade, including the height of any structure on which they are mounted.

1.3
Unusual designs and antennas

This Standard covers the requirements for most structural antennas, antenna towers, and antenna-supporting structures, but it is recognized that structures that are unusual with regard to their height or shape, or with regard to the shape and size of individual members, or that are located on sites having unusual topographical, geological, or climatic conditions might not be adequately covered. In such cases, appropriate engineering principles providing a level of reliability at least equivalent to that provided by this Standard should be applied.

1.4
Dynamic effects of wind

This Standard does not contain mandatory requirements that take into account the dynamic effects of wind.

1.5
Other design approaches

A rational design based on theory, analysis, and engineering practice, acceptable to the owner and regulatory authority, may be used in lieu of the design procedures or materials described in this Standard. In such cases, the design should be prepared by an engineer qualified in the specific method and knowledgeable about the materials to be used, and should provide a level of safety and performance that is not less than that implicit in this Standard.

1.6
Local, provincial, and federal regulations

Responsibility for observing all applicable local, provincial, and federal regulations is not relieved by compliance with this Standard.

1.7
Terminology

In this Standard, "shall" is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; "should" is used to express a recommendation or that within the limits of the standard.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.

Origin: CSA
Close date: Nov 20, 2018
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Scope
1.1

This Standard provides the requirements for the:

(a)  certification of companies engaged in the fusion welding of reinforcing bars  and  the qualification of their personnel and welding procedures;

(b) the design, fabrication, and inspection of welded connections utilizing deformed reinforcing bars;

(c) welding of deformed reinforcing bars either directly to each other or through splice members; and

(d)        welding of deformed reinforcing bars to structural or low-alloy steel members used as anchorages in precast or cast-in-place concrete construction either in the fabricating shop or in the field.

In lieu of meeting requirements of this standard, companies performing welding of reinforcing bars to steel elements may apply testing requirements of CSA W47.1 and have their welding personnel and welding procedures accepted with CSA W47.1.

 

Note: Some examples of applications that may apply certification of CSA W47.1 are:  welding of deformed bars (anchors) to structural or hardware elements when installing precast panels to buildings, lifting devices, base plates, ladders, catwalks, etc. Whenever the welding of reinforcing rebars is required to reinforce the concrete in applications like concrete, precast, cast in place construction, etc. provisions of CSA Standard W186 apply. Applications required by the following standards require certification to this standard: CSA A448.1, A23.1, A23.3, A23.4, N287.2, N287.3, N287.4, N287.5, S304.1, S6, S474, S850 and Z98.   

1.2  

This Standard does not cover requirements for the:

(a) welding of plates, angles, or other structural members to one another. These types of applications are covered by CSA Standard W59, Welded Steel Construction;

(b) welding of deformed reinforcing bars used for pre-stressing steel or for bar or rod mats for which the welding is covered by the manufacturing specification; and

(c)  welding reinforcing bars with specified yield strength exceeding 550 MPa (80 ksi).

 

1.3

The requirements of this Standard are based on the principle that a certified company has full responsibility for the quality of the welded product it produces and this responsibility cannot   be transferred to its employed or retained personnel or to the administrator of this Standard.

 

1.4

This Standard governs the certification of companies. Certification pertains to the capability of   the company with respect to welding. Certification should not be construed as approving any products or services of the certified company.

 

1.5

This Standard stipulates requirements for

(a) welding engineers;

(b) welding supervisors;

(c) welders and welding  operators; and

(d) documentation.

1.6

The qualification requirements for welders, and welding operators specified in this Standard are intended to demonstrate an individual’s basic welding skills and to provide a means of verifying that individual’s continuing ability in the fusion welding of steel.

 

1.7

Provisions for recognition of personnel qualified under other jurisdictions are included in this Standard.

 

1.8

This Standard includes provisions for the following:

(a) shielded metal arc welding (SMAW);

(b) gas metal arc welding (GMAW);

(c) flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) and metal cored arc welding; and

(d) metal-cored arc welding (MCAW).

 

1.9 Base metal

1.9.1 General

Steel base metal to be welded under this Standard should conform to the requirements of the CSA or ASTM Standards listed in Clauses 1.9.2 and 1.9.3 or other recognized specifications of equivalent welding quality as determined by the company’s engineer and approved by the engineer. Equivalent welding quality shall be established on the basis of composition and carbon equivalent.

1.9.2 Reinforcing Bars

Reinforcing bars to be fusion welded in accordance with this Standard should conform to one of the following Standards:

(I) CSA:

(a)    G30.16; or

(b)   G30.12; or

(c)   G30.18; or

(d)   other specifications approved by the owner provided mill test reports are supplied and carbon equivalent must not exceed 0.55% when calculated as shown in Clause 1.9.4.

(II) ASTM:

(a) A82/82M;

(b) A496/A496M;

(c) A615/615M;

(d) A706/706M;

(e) A767/A767M zinc-coated (galvanized) reinforcing bars that meet the requirements of A615/A615M or

     A706/A706M;

(f) A775/A775M epoxy-coated reinforcing bars that meet the requirements of A615/A615M or

     A706/A706M; and

(g) A934/A934M epoxy-coated prefabricated reinforcing bars that meet the requirements of A615/A615M

     or A706/A706M.

 

1.9.3 Structural Steel

Plates, angles, or other shapes for splices of bars and plates, or other structural steel members to which bars are anchored should conform to the steels listed in CSA W59, latest edition.

 

 

 

1.9.4 Carbon equivalent

The carbon equivalent (CE) of reinforcing bars must not exceed 0.55% when calculated with the following formula:

 

CE=%C + %Mn/6 + %Cu/40 + %Ni/20 + %Cr/10 - %Mo/50 - %V/10

 

In addition, the ratio of Mn:C (expressed as wt.%) must be 3.0 or greater.

 

1.9.5 Material test reports

If the material test reports (MTR) are not available, chemical analysis to determine the carbon equivalent (CE) may be made on reinforcing bars similar to the reinforcing bars to be welded. If the chemical composition is not known or cannot be obtained the following procedures should be applied:

 

(a)  for bars number 20 or less, use a minimum preheat of 150°C (300°F);

(b)  for bars number 25 or larger, use a minimum preheat of 250°C (500°F); and

(c)  for all bar sizes of ASTM A706/A706M minimum preheat must be as described in Table  8 as listed for CE of over 0.45% to 0.55% inclusive.

 

1.10

This  Standard  does  not address  the  safety issues associated with  welding and welding practices.

Note: CAN/CSA-W117.2 addresses safety in welding and should be followed, in addition to any applicable workplace health and safety legislation in effect. It is the responsibility of the user of this Standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

 

1.11

This Standard does not address underwater welding activities.

 

1.12

In CSA Standards, “shall” is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; “should” is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; “may” is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard; and “can” is used to express possibility or capability. Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material. Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements. Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.

 

1.13

The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Standard. The values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only.

 

1.14 Welding terminology

Most of the welding terms used in this Standard are defined in AWS A3.0M/A3.0. See Annex E for a selected list of definitions derived from that Standard. Annex E also includes definitions of terms used in this Standard that are not covered in AWS A3.0M/A3.0.

 

1.15 Symbols

Welding symbols shall be as shown in AWS A2.4. Special requirements are fully explained by notes or details. See Figure 18 for symbols developed for incorporation into this Standard.

Origin: CSA
Close date: Dec 5, 2018
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1 Scope

1.1 

This Supplement is for use in conjunction with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440-17 and contains additional requirements for Canada.

1.2 

This Supplement provides simplified methods to calculate the minimum performance levels for resistance to water penetration, wind loads, and snow loads for fenestration products on buildings in Canada.

This Supplement specifies two different methods for calculating the minimum performance levels for resistance to wind loads and snow loads:

Method 1: the simplified procedures specified in Clause 4.2.

Method 2: compliance with the more detailed procedures specified by the structural commentary requirements of the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC).

Note: The edition of the NBCC in effect can vary by jurisdiction.

In some cases, the simplified procedure specified in Clause 4.2 of this Supplement can result in higher values than those attained by using the procedures in the building code.

The simplified procedure to calculate specified wind load in Clause 4.2.2 applies only to buildings on level terrain, having a slope no greater than 1:10. For buildings that do not meet this criteria (e.g., buildings on steeper slopes, hills, or escarpments) wind load values are calculated in accordance with the structural commentary requirements of the NBCC.

The simplified procedure to calculate specified snow load in Clause 4.2.4 applies only to small, simple, light-frame buildings. For buildings that do not meet this criteria, snow load values are calculated in accordance with the structural commentary requirements of the NBCC.

Calculating wind load value using Tables 1 to 5 in Clause 4.2 can result in a higher wind load value than if the calculation is done using the formula in Clause 4.2. The higher wind load can result in a higher performance grade product being specified than is required by the applicable building code.

 

1.3

This supplement introduces the issue of Climate Change, and the associated effects on fenestration in buildings.  It is anticipated that fenestration designers will need to incorporate changes in climate loads resulting from climate change into the fenestration product design.  Annex B – “Climate Change effects on the durability of fenestration products” provides some information on this topic for consideration by designers.  As information on climate loads evolves, so too will this standard and the information available to designers.

 

 

1.4 

In this Supplement, “shall” is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the publication; “should” is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and “may” is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the publication.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.

 

Origin: CSA
Close date: Dec 5, 2018
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1 Scope

1.1

This Standard applies to

(a)   fenestration systems covered by AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, including

(i)    vertically sliding windows;

(ii)    horizontally sliding windows;

(iii)   dual-action windows;

(iv)   casement windows, both fixed and operable;

(v)   projecting (awning/hopper) windows;

(vi)   fixed windows;

(vii)  sidelites;

(viii) transom windows;

(ix)   sliding glass doors;

(x)   side-hinged doors;

(xi)   dual-action side-hinged doors;

(xii)  architectural terrace doors;

(xiii) unit skylights and roof windows;

(xiv) greenhouse or garden windows; and

(xv)  tubular daylighting devices; and

(b)   curtain walls.

Note: Unless otherwise specified, the term “fenestration system” is used to apply to all products listed in Clause 1.1.

1.2

This Standard specifies both measurement and calculation methods for establishing the following fenestration system properties for both residential and commercial applications:

(a)   overall coefficient of heat transfer (U-factor);

(b)   solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC); and

(c)   visible transmittance (VT).

This Standard also specifies measurement methods for establishing the Temperature Index (I) for fenestration systems for both residential and commercial applications.

Note: The fenestration properties established in accordance with this Standard are for specific indoor and outdoor conditions and will vary slightly under actual conditions. The values obtained by the methods specified in this Standard are considered to provide an acceptable basis for comparing performance in use.

1.3

1.3.1

This Standard specifies a method for determining an energy performance rating for vertical fenestration systems, under heating conditions, for use in low-rise residential applications. The Energy Rating (ER) includes factors for

(a)   solar heat gain;

(b)   heat loss by conduction, radiation, and convection; and

(c)   heat loss by air leakage.

1.3.2

The ER allows for a comparison of different fenestration systems on the basis of their effect on the energy supplied annually by the heating system. The ER calculation assumes vertical installation in low-rise residential buildings and is based on average conditions for

(a)   incident solar radiation on fenestration systems facing the four cardinal compass directions (north, east, south, and west); and

(b)   representative climate zones in Canada.

1.3.3

The ER should not be used to rate

(a)   any sloped glazing (residential or commercial); or

(b)   fenestration products that will be installed in commercial, industrial, or high-rise residential buildings.

1.4

CSA A440.3 is a user guide to this Standard. It provides guidance on determining

(a)   a specific Energy Rating (ERS) for particular locations, orientations, and vertical fenestration system sizes; and

(b)   an ER for residential cooling (ERC).

 

1.5

This supplement introduces the issue of Climate Change, and the associated effects on fenestration in buildings.  It is anticipated that fenestration designers will need to incorporate changes in climate loads resulting from climate change into the fenestration product design.  It is also anticipated that adjustments will be needed to installation detailing.  Annex B – “Climate Change effects on the durability of fenestration products” provides some information on this topic for consideration by building design professionals, authorities having jurisdiction and installers.  As information on climate change  evolves, so too will the requirements of this standard.

 

1.6

This Standard does not apply to

(a)    fixed glazing cast into precast concrete panels;

(b)    revolving doors;

(c)    doors intended for indoor use; and

(d)    storm doors.

Note: While these products have not been considered in the development of this Standard, simulation procedures given in the Standard may be used to evaluate the U-factor and the SHGC of these products.

1.7

This Standard does not address the retention of thermal and optical properties and airtightness by fenestration systems over time and under conditions of use.

1.8

In CSA Standards, “shall” is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; “should” is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and “may” is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard; and “can” is used to express possibility or capability.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements. Legends to equations and figures are considered requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.

 
Origin: CSA
Close date: Dec 5, 2018
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1 Scope

1.1 

This Standard sets forth methods for both new installation and replacement installation of factory assembled windows, exterior doors, and skylights that are intended for installation in low-rise buildings and buildings used primarily for, but not limited to, residential occupancy where the windows, doors, and skylights (including window wall) are R, LC, or CW class within the application of AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440.

Note: The effectiveness, safety, and durability of installed fenestration products depend on the choice and quality of materials and design, adequate assembly, the support system, and proper installation. Improper installation of fenestration products might reduce their effectiveness, including excessive condensation; unacceptably high levels of air, water, and sound leakage; and deterioration of the wall and roof systems into which they are installed.

1.2 

This Standard provides minimum requirements for the installation of fenestration products including windows, doors, and skylights. This Standard addresses issues that could compromise the performance of the fenestration product as established by testing to the requirements of AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440. Where installation methods are not specifically addressed in this Standard or in the installation instructions of the manufacturer of a fenestration product, a design professional should be consulted for a solution consistent with the intent of the minimum requirements and principles in this Standard.

1.3 

This supplement introduces the issue of Climate Change, and the associated effects on fenestration in buildings.  It is anticipated that fenestration designers will need to incorporate changes in climate loads resulting from climate change into the fenestration product design.  It is also anticipated that adjustments will be needed to installation detailing.  Annex H – “Climate Change effects on the durability of fenestration products” provides some information on this topic for consideration by building design professionals, authorities having jurisdiction and installers.  As information on climate change evolves, so too will the requirements of this standard.

The application of this Standard requires a working knowledge of applicable federal, provincial, and local (municipal) building codes and regulations specifically concerning, but not limited to, required means of egress and requirements for safety glazing.

1.4 

This Standard does not apply to the

a) selection of fenestration products for a given application;

b) selection of other products for use in the installation;

c) installation of storm windows or storm doors;

d) maintenance of installed fenestration products;

e) rebuilding of fenestration products; or

f) fabrication of fenestration products, whether such fabrication takes place in a factory or at the installation site.

Note: For product selection information, see CSA A440S1.

1.5 

This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It does not set out requirements relating to the safety of the person installing the units. It is the responsibility of the installer to obtain necessary health and safety training and to follow proper procedures for safe handling and application of installation materials and fenestration products.

1.6 

This Standard assumes that its users are familiar with the terminology, procedures, and requirements of good building practice. Some requirements and guidance are included in this Standard, but the installer should also refer to information available from installation material and fenestration product manufacturers.

1.7 

This Standard does not address the qualifications and skills that an installer should possess. It assumes familiarity with the fundamentals of low-rise building construction in Canada as described in Division B, Part 9 of the NBC and of installation techniques for fenestration products normally available in Canada. Although guidance is provided in the manner of installation of fenestration products, it is not a training manual.

1.8 

In this Standard, “shall” is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; “should” is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and “may” is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the Standard.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.

1.9 

The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Standard. The values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only.

Origin: CSA
Close date: Dec 10, 2018
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1 Scope

1.1 General

1.1.1

This Standard specifies requirements, in accordance with the National Building Code of Canada, for the design and strength evaluation of

a) structures of reinforced and prestressed concrete; and

b) plain concrete elements.

Note: Special requirements for parking structures are specified in CSA S413.

1.1.2

For structures such as blast‐resistant structures, tanks, reservoirs, swimming pools, bins, silos, towers, and chimneys, the designer shall also refer to applicable codes, standards or guidelines for additional requirements.

1.2 Fire resistance

This Standard requires designs to be carried out in accordance with the fire resistance requirements of the applicable building code (see Clause 8.1.2).

Note: Information on the fire resistance of concrete elements can be found in Appendix D of the National Building Code of Canada.

1.3 Alternative design procedures

Designs that use procedures that are not covered by this Standard but are carried out by a person qualified in the methods applied and provide a level of safety and performance equivalent to designs complying with this Standard are acceptable if carried out by one of the following methods:

a) analysis based on generally established theory;

b) evaluation of a full-scale structure or a prototype by a loading test; or

c) studies of model analogues.

1.4 Terminology

In this Standard, “shall” is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; “should” is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and “may” is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.

1.5 Units of measurement

Equations appearing in this Standard are compatible with the following units:

a) area: mm2 (square millimetres);

b) force: N (newtons);

c) length: mm (millimetres);

d) moment: N·mm (newton millimetres); and

e) stress: MPa (megapascals).

Whenever the square root of the concrete strength is determined, the concrete strength and the square root of the concrete strength are both expressed in megapascals.

Other dimensionally consistent combinations of units may be used, provided that appropriate adjustments are made to constants in non-homogeneous equations.

Note: Some examples of non-homogeneous equations are found in Clauses 12.2.2 and 12.8.