Draft Details

Designation:CSA R111
Review start date:Apr 7, 2020
Review end date:Jun 8, 2020
Contact email:sue.ruscetta(at)csagroup.org
Draft Scope/Description:


This Standard applies to the management of solid waste management facilities, including the evaluation, planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and maintenance of solid waste pollution risk management strategies and mitigation measures for new and existing infrastructure in northern communities. This Standard provides

an outline of procedures for conducting an overall risk assessment, including infrastructure vulnerability;

factors to be considered in land use and infrastructure planning;

an overview of the typical drivers of natural and human-made hazards to which this Standard is applicable, including climate change;

procedures for planning, siting, designing, constructing, operating, inspecting, monitoring, and maintaining solid waste management facilities as well as mitigation measures as applicable;

closure and decommissioning requirements and best practices;

post-closure inspection, monitoring, maintenance and management;

emergency response and contingency planning protocols for addressing failures or imminent failures in mitigations implemented to protect human health and the environment;

a framework for community-based processes for addressing solid waste issues, human health and environmental considerations; and

background information and relevant reference material.

Compliance with this Standard will allow users to demonstrate that the design and implementation of risk management strategies and mitigation measures take into consideration, and are compatible with, the preservation of permafrost or reduction of the disruptive effects of permafrost thaw. Because the performance of permafrost is often integral to the success of risk management strategies intended to protect human health and the environment at solid waste management facilities, compliance with this Standard will help mitigate impacts to infrastructure, and the environment within and surrounding the project site.

Permafrost is not the only challenge faced by those who design and operate waste management facilities in the North, however. Often, the remote nature of the communities mean that it is hard to hire and retain staff to manage the complex activities that underlie the safe operation of modern waste management sites. Communities may find it expensive to undertake many of the measures described in the Standard. Those who embark on the development and operation of waste management facilities must be confident that they can access the monetary and non-monetary resources that the site will require throughout a facility life that may span several decades.


This Standard is intended for use in Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Nunavik, but other northern and remote jurisdictions may wish to adopt it as well. Users are intended to include

the owners and operators of solid waste management facilities that can be affected by natural or human-made hazards;

the owners and operators of other community infrastructure for which the safe operation of the solid waste management facility is important;

contract administrators who oversee a solid waste management facility project with risk management or mitigation components;

site investigators (scientists and engineers) who evaluate the site conditions (existing and projected) and estimate the risks related to the development of the project;

design professionals and reviewers (consulting engineers, and territorial, provincial, or regional technical services staff) who design, assess and approve, and oversee the implementation of engineering-based solutions;

contractors working on solid waste management facilities;

regulatory authorities, such as land and water boards and review boards;

compliance authorities, such as qualified building inspectors and qualified environmental inspectors;

land use planners and community planning officials;

educators, for the purposes of knowledge transfer; and

others with a vested interest in risk management or mitigative elements of solid waste management infrastructure planning and/or construction projects, design and construction, and inspection of mitigation measures and plan implementation.



The requirements provided in this Standard are intended to address risks to:

closed, existing or newly proposed solid waste management facilities, which might be exposed to natural and other hazards now or in the future; and

human health and the environment, due to closed, existing or newly proposed solid waste management facilities.


This Standard also applies where risk management measures are required by contract, permit, regulation, or other approval. The application of the Standard begins with an overall risk assessment and evaluation of infrastructure vulnerability phases of a project. The evaluation of risks associated with natural hazards includes the potential impacts of climate change that are to be considered in the planning, siting, design, construction, operations, closure, and post-closure of a MSW site. The application of the Standard continues throughout the lifespan of the infrastructure project or strategic planning cycles, including planning, siting, construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning, or until residual risk levels are deemed acceptable.

Types of infrastructure

This Standard applies to the evaluation, planning and design, implementation, as well as monitoring and maintenance of solid waste management facilities as well as mitigation measures during all phases of planning, design, construction, service life and decommissioning of

solid waste management sites with segregated categories of waste;


transfer stations;

public drop-off facilities;

composting facilities;

incinerators; and

expansions of any of these types of facilities or structures.



In this Standard, “shall” is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the Standard; “should” is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and “may” is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the Standard.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.

The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Standard. The values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only.

You may comment on any section of this document by clicking the “Submit Comment” link at the bottom of the relevant section.